Vitamin d biosynthesis metabolism and mode of action Metabolism and Mechanism of Action of Vitamin D

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Vitamin D stimulates the expression of a number of proteins involved in transporting calcium from the lumen of the intestine, across the epithelial cells and into blood.

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Within the liver, cholecalciferal is hydroxylated to hydroxycholecalciferol by the enzyme hydroxylase. Both vitamin D3 from the skin and vitamin D obtained from the diet are activated in a two-step hydroxylation process. After entering the target cell, 1,25 OH 2D3 binds to the vitamin D receptor which forms a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor and subsequently binds to vitamin D responsive elements on good history essays DNA and modulates gene transcription Dusso et al.

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Deficiency in adults leads to the disease osteomalacia. For this it acts on the specific type of bone cells referred to as osteoblastscausing them to release RANKLwhich in turn activates osteoclasts. Wang, J Y et al.

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