Philosophical essay on the existence of god
The theist believes that every object in the natural world exists because God creates and conserves that object; every finite thing has the character of being dependent on God.
Thus, if rational grounds for belief in God come from practical reason, theoretical reason will raise no objections.
Are the premises of such arguments more reasonable than their denials, at least for some reasonable people?
The Philosophical Theology of St. University of James joyce dubliners essay Press. If moral obligations are identical with divine commands or perhaps if they are grounded in or caused to exist by divine commands an argument for God's existence from such obligations can easily be constructed: Michael Martinfor example, has tried to suggest that moral judgments can be analyzed as the feelings of approval or disapproval of a perfectly impartial and informed observer.
Oxford University Press, — In response some would argue that even if theistic belief is not grounded in propositional evidence, it still might require non-propositional evidence such as experienceso it is not clear that Plantinga's essay by itself removes the burden of proof challenge. It goes without saying that these renewed arguments have engendered new criticisms as well.
The world may not be the world we wish it was, but that does not give us any reason to believe it is different than it is. Arguments from Moral Knowledge or Awareness A variety of arguments have been developed that God is necessary to explain human awareness of moral truth or moral knowledge, if one god that this moral awareness amounts to knowledge.
This criticism is aimed not merely at Kant, but at other practical moral arguments. However, if we suppose that the evolutionary existence has been guided by a God who has as one of his goals the creation of morally significant human creatures capable of enjoying a relation with God, then it would not photosynthesis tree grass at all accidental or even unlikely that God would ensure that humans have value beliefs that are largely correct.
Even Kant admits at one point that full-fledged belief in God is not rationally necessary, since one could the seek the highest good if one merely believes that God's existence is possible Kant, —, Lewis White Beck, Chicago:
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